The Histology Guide

Introduction

Cartilage and Bone are specialised forms of connective tissue.
They are both made up of cells embedded in an extracellular matrix.
It is the nature of the matrix that defines the properties of these connective tissues.
Cartilage is thin, avascular, flexible and resistant to compressive forces.
Bone is highly vascularised, and its calcified matrix makes it very strong.

This topic covers the structure and function of bone and cartilage, the type of cells found in these tissues, and how bone and cartilage are formed.

Objectives

By the time you have completed this topic you should know:

  1. The similarities and differences between bone and cartilage, and how the properties of cartilage and bone differ from those of other connective tissues.
  2. How cartilage is synthesised, how it grows and how it is nourished.
  3. What the three types of cartilage are and how their structures relate to their different properties and functions.
  4. The names of the different types of cell are that are found in bone, and what their functions are.
  5. How bone is made, grows and is nourished.
  6. How to recognise the different types of bone, and define their functions.
  7. The processes involved in two types of ossification - endochondral and intramembranous
  8. Recognise the zones of an epiphyseal plate, and know about how bone grows, and how and why it is remodelled.